Biology of the Grapevine

Biology of the Grapevine

A concise but comprehensive overview of the biology and cultivation of the grapevine.

Molecular Biology & Biotechnology of the Grapevine

Molecular Biology & Biotechnology of the Grapevine

Grapevine is one of the major cultivated plant crops. As with most woody plant species, molecular biology and biotechnology have progressed at a slow pace, due to several obstacles which have had to be overcome. However, substantial progress has now been made and useful information has been accumulated in the literature; numerous genes have been characterized from grapevine and significant progress has been made in the molecular and non-molecular biotechnological applications. In an effort to collect and present the state of the art on grapevine molecular biology and biotechnology, 41 scientists from 12 countries worked jointly on the preparation of this book. It is intended as a reference book for viticulturists, graduate and undergraduate students, biotechnological companies, and any scientist who is interested in molecular biology and biotechnology of plants with emphasis on grapevine.

The Chemistry and Biology of Winemaking

The Chemistry and Biology of Winemaking

Someone once said that 'wine is a mixture of chemistry, biology and psychology'. It has certainly fascinated people over the centuries and without a doubt been enjoyed by many. Indeed, from its serendipitous roots as an attempt to store fruit, wine has been woven into the fabric of society; from its use in religion to today's sophisticated products sampled over a meal. The Chemistry and Biology of Winemaking not only discusses the science of winemaking but also aims to provide the reader with a wider appreciation of the impact of oenology on human society. Beginning with a history of wine the book discusses a wide range of topics, with particular emphasis on the organisms involved. Starting with the role of yeast in fermentation, it goes on to discuss so-called 'killer yeasts', lactic acid bacteria and the role that genetically modified organisms may have in the future. This book is ideal for anyone interested in the process of winemaking and will be of particular use for those with an interest in the chemical and biological sciences.

Biology of Microorganisms on Grapes, in Must and in Wine

Biology of Microorganisms on Grapes, in Must and in Wine

The ancient beverage wine is the result of the fermentation of grape must. This n- urally and fairly stable product has been and is being used by many human societies as a common or enjoyable beverage, as an important means to improve the quality of drinking water in historical times, as therapeutical agent, and as a religious symbol. During the last centuries, wine has become an object of scientific interest. In this respect different periods may be observed. At first, simple observations were recorded, and subsequently, the chemical basis and the involvement of microorg- isms were elucidated. At a later stage, the scientific work led to the analysis of the many minor and trace compounds in wine, the detection and understanding of the biochemical reactions and processes, the diversity of microorganisms involved, and the range of their various activities. In recent years, the focus shifted to the genetic basis of the microorganisms and the molecular aspects of the cells, including metabolism, membrane transport, and regulation. These different stages of wine research were determined by the scientific methods that were known and available at the respective time. The recent “molecular” approach is based on the analysis of the genetic code and has led to significant results that were not even imaginable a few decades ago. This new wealth of information is being presented in the Biology of Microorganisms on Grapes, in Must, and in Wine.

The Grape Entomology

The Grape Entomology

Intensive and extensive cultivation of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) leads to serious pest problem in vineyards in major grape growing areas of the world. Climatic conditions in India are favorable for high production of table and wine grapes, and thus also for incidence of variety of pests. These include the sucking insect pests namely thrips, hoppers, mealybugs etc., and beetle pests like stem borer, stem girdler, flea beetles, chafer beetles, shot hole borer and several lepidopteron, mites, nematodes and vertebrate pests. Pests of grapes in other countries relevant to Indian conditions are also dealt herewith since they may get introduced in India in future. Up to date information on biology, damage, seasonal development, management practices of the pests are covered in this book. Some of the pest management practices followed in other countries are also given, which will be useful to Indian conditions. Pesticide residue is a serious problem both for export and internal market in grapes. Guideline for pesticide residue management in grapes is also given in this book. The authors have tried to accommodate almost all the important information generated on the grape pests up to 2012. A complete list of grape pests (except disease) occurring in different grape growing regions of the world is also covered in this book which will be ready reckoner for the grape workers. The authors sincerely hope that this book will provide useful information to many entomologists, students working on grapes and the grape growers in the country. It is a pleasure to thank all those people who gave help, suggestions and encouragement in the preparation of our book “The Grape Entomology”.

The Science of Grapevines

Anatomy and Physiology

The Science of Grapevines

The Science of Grapevines: Anatomy and Physiology is an introduction to the physical structure of the grapevine, its various organs, their functions and their interactions with the environment. Beginning with a brief overview of the botanical classification (including an introduction to the concepts of species, cultivars, clones, and rootstocks), plant morphology and anatomy, and growth cycles of grapevines, The Science of Grapevines covers the basic concepts in growth and development, water relations, photosynthesis and respiration, mineral uptake and utilization, and carbon partitioning. These concepts are put to use to understand plant-environment interactions including canopy dynamics, yield formation, and fruit composition, and concludes with an introduction to stress physiology, including water stress (drought and flooding), nutrient deficiency and excess, extreme temperatures (heat and cold), and the impact and response to of other organisms. Based on the author’s years of teaching grapevine anatomy as well as his research experience with grapevines and practical experience growing grapes, this book provides an important guide to understanding the entire plant. Chapter 7 broken into two chapters, now "Environmental Constraints and Stress Physiology and Chapter 8 "Living with Other Organisms" to better reflect specific concepts Integration of new research results including: Latest research on implementing drip irrigation to maximize sugar accumulation within grapes Effect of drought stress on grapevine’s hydraulic system and options for optimum plant maintenance in drought conditions The recently discovered plant hormone – strigolactones – and their contribution of apical dominance that has suddenly outdated dogma on apical dominance control Chapter summaries added Key literature references missed in the first edition as well as references to research completed since the 1e publication will be added

Biological Diversity

Exploiters and Exploited

Biological Diversity

Biological Diversity takes a fresh, innovative approach to the teaching of biodiversity. Rather than detailing and cataloguing the major taxa and their evolutionary relationships, the authors have selected 18 groups of organisms and used these as a framework in which to discuss the species and their interactions with man and each other. There is a strong narrative theme throughout – the exploited and the exploiters - and, in many cases, there is emphasis on the historical context. A wide range of organisms are covered, from the unicellular to birds and mammals and with an equal consideration of plants and animals. Species have been chosen for their ability to best illustrate particular biological principles, and for their strong interaction with other species. After an introduction the book is divided into two parts: ‘Exploited’ and ‘Exploiters’. Each of the chapters, although linked to each other, forms a stand-alone essay. They are scientifically rigorous, up-to-date and do not shy away from addressing some controversial issues. Chapters have’ text boxes’ highlighting important issues and concepts, lists of further reading and references. In addition to tables and figures the book has a selection of original illustrations drawn by leading artist Steven Appleby. This fresh approach will appeal to all those interested in the biological sciences, and aims to be accessible to people with a diversity of backgrounds. It will prove particularly useful to biology students, enabling them to get to grips with important biological principles and concepts that underpin the diversity of life, and the interrelationship of humans with other groups of organisms.

Genetics, Genomics, and Breeding of Grapes

Genetics, Genomics, and Breeding of Grapes

Grapevine is a highly valuable crop worldwide, both from a cultural as well as a commercial point of view. One of its major advantages is that it is well adapted to scarce water conditions. The main object of grapevine breeding is to develop varieties that are resistant to pathogens and at the same time well-adapted to a changing environment. Since the beginning of the 21st century, there has been a concerted effort by the international scientific community to develop genomic tools and resources for grapevine, culminating in its complete genome sequence. The book reviews these efforts and their usefulness for grapevine breeding and viticulture improvement.

Issues in Life Sciences—Botany and Plant Biology Research: 2012 Edition

Issues in Life Sciences—Botany and Plant Biology Research: 2012 Edition

Issues in Life Sciences—Botany and Plant Biology Research: 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Plant Nutrition and Soil Science. The editors have built Issues in Life Sciences—Botany and Plant Biology Research: 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Plant Nutrition and Soil Science in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Life Sciences—Botany and Plant Biology Research: 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Bioactive Polyphenols from Wine Grapes

Bioactive Polyphenols from Wine Grapes

Is red wine good for you? And if so, why? How much? And what are the actual benefits? This addition to the SpringerBriefs in Cell Biology series thoroughly but succinctly answers these questions. It covers the biochemistry, health benefits and therapeutic potential of wine grapes. It begins with an overview of phytoalexin production in Vitis vinifera (Common Grape Vine), detailing the relationship of resveratrol to analogues such as pterostilbene, piceid and the viniferins (resveratrol oligomers). The discussion then turns to the hundreds of reports linking resveratrol and related grape vine polyphenols to various beneficial health effects especially cardio- and cerebro- vascular, metabolic, anti-inflammatory and more. Also addressed are the numerous intracellular mechanisms that have been shown to mediate the effects of these compounds in mammalian cells and tissues. Finally, the authors discuss aspects of polyphenol bioavailability and how this will influence choices taken for delivering these compounds as nutritional supplements. A brief chapter containing general conclusions and prospectus rounds out the information. ​