Input-output analysis is the main tool of applied equilibrium analysis. This textbook provides a systematic survey of the most recent developments in input-output analysis and their applications, helping us to examine questions such as: which industries are competitive? What are the multiplier effects of an investment program? How do environmental restrictions impact on prices? Linear programming and national accounting are introduced and used to resolve issues such as the choice of technique, the comparative advantage of a national economy, its efficiency and dynamic performance. Technological and environmental spillovers are analysed, both at the national level (between industries) and the international level (the measurement of globalisation effects). The book is self-contained, but assumes some familiarity with calculus, matrix algebra, and the microeconomic principle of optimizing behaviour. Exercises and review questions are included at the end of each chapter, and solutions at the end of the book.
Regional economies, like their national counterparts, are continuously subjected to changes in their growth and development patterns. The changes may result from actions within the region, or the action may occur at the national level. Most changes involve both initial or direct impacts and secondary or indirect impacts. Regional analysts in federal, state, and local government and in the private sector are often called upon to develop models to estimate these impacts. A class of models which has played an important role in the provision of such information is the regional input-output model. This monograph provides an introduction to the use of this model; it traces its early development from two sources: simple aggregate models of the national economy and economic base models. The basic accounting framework is presented, focusing on the structural interrelations which exist between industries. Thus, one is able to appreciate why changes in one sector of the economy often have important repercussions in other parts of the economy. The model provides various types of multipliers which can be used to calculate the effects of new firms on the local economy or just how many jobs might be lost or gained within the region if the federal government moved from social to defense spending programs. The construction and use of the models are detailed and some important new developments are summarized. In particular, attention is focused on the way the input-output model can be extended or linked with other models. Extensions with linear programming, econometric models, and labor force models provide the analyst with the ability to handle such problems as energy supply and demand, the labor force impacts of structural change, the benefits and costs of projects on the regional economy, and the effects of projects on income distribution. The input-output model is thus seen as a flexible tool for regional analysis, one which is used in countries no matter what their political philosophy. "Well focused, logically structured and easy to follow. This monograph is quite helpful and should find a ready audience in senior and graduate level seminars. Examples are clearly presented and calculations are easy to follow. The writing throughout is clear and focused. . . . A very helpful book." --Geographical Analysis
This collection of writings provides the only comprehensive introduction to the input-output model for which Leontief was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1973. The structural approach to economics developed by Leontief, and known as input-output analysis, paved the way for the transformation of economics into a truly empirical discipline that could utilize modern data processing technology. This thoroughly revised second edition includes twenty essays--twelve of which are new to this edition--that reflect the past developments and the present state of the field. Beginning with an introductory chapter, the book leads the reader into an understanding of the input-output approach--not only as formal theory but also as a research strategy and powerful tool for dealing with a complex modern economy.
Input-output analysis, developed by Nobel Prize winner Wassily Leontief, continues to be a vital area of research. Not only do academics find it a powerful tool in understanding how large scale economies--especially national economies--work, but many governments maintain computer input-output models to study their own economies. This important volume of work contains the latest research using the I-O model, focusing primarily on technology, planning, and development. The book derives from a conference held in Sapporo, Japan, in July, 1986.
Release on 2009-02-08 | by Shinichiro Nakamura,Yasushi Kondo
Concepts and Application to Industrial Ecology
Author: Shinichiro Nakamura,Yasushi Kondo
Pubpsher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Social Science
Industrial ecology (IE) is a rapidly growing scienti?c discipline that is concerned with the sustainability of industrial systems under explicit consideration of its int- dependence with natural systems. In recent years, there has been an ever-increasing awareness about the applicability of Input-Output Analysis (IOA) to IE, in particular to LCA (life cycle assessment) and MFA (material ?ow analysis). This is witnessed in the growing number of papers at ISIE (International Society for Industrial Ec- ogy) conferences, which use IOA, and also by the installment of subject editors on IOA in the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment. It can be said that IE has become a major ?eld of application for IOA. The broadening of users of IOA from various backgrounds implies a need for a self-contained textbook on IOA that can meet the needs of students and practitioners without compromising on basic c- cepts and the latest developments. This book was written with the aim of ?lling this need, and is primarily addressed to students and practitioners of IE. As the title suggests, the core contents of the book have grown out of our research in IOA of waste management issues over the last decade. We have been fascinated by the versatile nature of IOA with regard to various technical issues of waste m- agement in particular, and to IE in general. For us (both economists by training), IOA has turned out to be extremely useful in establishing productive communi- tion with scientists and engineers interested in IE.
In this authoritative Handbook, leading experts from international statistical offices and universities explain in detail the treatment and role of input-output statistics in the System of National Accounts. Furthermore, they address the derivation of input-output coefficients for the purpose of economic and environmental modeling, the building of applied general equilibrium models, the use of these models for efficiency analysis, and the extensions to stochastic and dynamic input-output analysis. As well as revealing and exploring the theoretical foundations, the Handbook also acts as a useful guide for practitioners.